Christian Puech : Inner Language and linguistic ontology at the end of the XXth century The problem of inner language originated from classical Greek philosophy, then developped in medieval thought. Its early nineteenth century renewal can be located in the philosophical perspective of de Bonald and Gamier. This trend is then being developped by Reigner and Chaignet in the field of philology, while Egger (1881) opposes it. The latter arguments are echoed by Darmesteter's, Bréal's and Henry's semantic analysises whithin linguistics. In the domain of psychology, they are also linked to Flournoy's work in the context of his collaboration with F. de Saussure. The analysis of oral utterance stands from heterogeneous view points, but poses two questions: 1st, that of the connection between the individual and social traits of language; 2nd, that of linguistic ontology, i.e. the link of the speaking subjects to one self in the realm of language.