Abstract Helminth infections are a major cause of production loss in cattle. Great progress has been achieved in the design of control strategies for these infections. Control is based mainly on the use of anthelmintics, and these have become more potent and easier to administer. However, the most effective control is possible only through the integration of different approaches. Moreover, an increasing number of disadvantages of chemotherapy/prophylaxis—biological, economical and environmental—have been suggested. In sheep, the high incidence of anthelmintic resistance has simply forced veterinarians/producers to adopt alternative control strategies; in cattle, no real need for deviation from the actual control programmes seems to exist. Therefore, the following questions are discussed: (1) Based on the distribution of cattle worldwide, what are the target parasites? (2) Can we continue to rely on control based mainly on the use of (highly effective) anthelmintics? (3) What are the prospects for non-chemical control? (4) Who will develop and implement integrated control systems? (5) In the case of parasite control in Western Europe, has it been effcient and can/need it be changed? (6) How can we integrate helminth control in the general design of herd disease control?