Abstract A monoclonal antibody was obtained by immunizing mice with an extract of monkey brain. The monoclonal antibody 473 stained a small subpopulation of neurons in various regions of monkey and rat central nervous system. The perimeters of neuronal somata and the proximal parts of dendrites bound the antibody. Electron microscopic analysis showed that the immunoreactivity was associated with the outer surface of the cell. The immunoreactivity in the rat cerebral cortex appeared gradually during the second four weeks after birth. The antibody stained fetal cartilages but otherwise was specific to the nervous system. Experiments on the stability of the immunoreactivity to enzymatic and chemical treatments of the sections suggest that the antigen molecule is of proteoglycan nature.