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Prostate gland lengths and iceball dimensions predict micturition functional outcome following salvage prostate cryotherapy in men with radiation recurrent prostate cancer

Public Library of Science
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  • Biology
  • Design
  • Medicine


Introduction: Tissue cryoablation is a potential curative option for solid malignancies, including radiation recurrent prostate cancer (RRPC). Case series of salvage cryotherapy (SCT) in RRPC have reported promising disease free survival (DFS) outcomes and acceptable toxicity profile. While many men receive SCT, no predictive factors for treatment induced side effects are known. The aim of this study is to validate the oncologic outcome of SCT in a large multi-centre patient cohort and to identify potential parameters associated with an increased risk of micturition symptoms. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective analysis, we studied 283 consecutive patients with RRPC treated by SCT in three independent U.K. centres (between 2001 and 2011). Two freeze-thaw cycles of transperineal cryotherapy were performed under transrectal ultrasound guidance by a single surgeon in each of the 3 sites. We analysed clinico-pathological factors against tumour response. Functional outcomes were assessed by continence status and IPSS questionnaire. Predictive factors for SCT-induced micturition symptoms were analysed in a sub-group (n = 42) of consecutive cases. Results: We found that nadir post-SCT PSA levels strongly associated with DFS. The DFS rates at 12- and 36-month were 84% and 67% for the ≤1 ng/ml group and 56% and 14% for the >1 ng/ml group, respectively (p<0.001). Correlative analysis revealed highly significant association between patients' post-SCT micturition status with prostate gland and iceball lengths following SCT. Finally, in a reduction model, both gland length and maximal length of iceball were highly associated with patients' IPSS outcome (p<0.001). Conclusion: We report the largest European patient cohort treated with SCT for RRPC. Oncologic outcome guided by nadir PSA of <1 ng/ml is consistent with earlier single-centre series. For the first time, we identified physical parameters to predict micturition symptoms following SCT. Our data will directly assist on-going and future trial design in cryotherapy in prostate cancer.

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