The Roman Clergy and the Jubilee - We know little about the Roman clergy in the 14th century. The pope, head of the Church, was at the same time bishop of Rome and leader of Western Christendom. Gradually, between the 11th and 12th centuries, the College of Cardinals was instituted. In the 14th century, the cardinals carried out political and administrative functions for the pope, but had ceased to participate in the religious life of the city. The clergy of the great basilicas and principal parochial churches, forming a confraternity, assumed a strongly defensive attitude, particularly in regard to the mendicant orders, who failed to assert their influence as in other cities. On the whole, it seems that the jubilee had little impact on the local clergy, content with merely recording the flow of foreign pilgrims.