Abstract In the natural world, there are many species whose individual members have a life history that they take them with two distinct stages: immaturity and maturity. In particular, we have in mind mammalian populations and some amphibious animals. We improve the assumption of a single population as a whole. It is assumed that the immature individuals and mature individuals are divided by a fixed period. This paper concentrates on the study of a stage-structured single population model with mature individuals in a polluted environment and pulse input of environmental toxin at fixed moments. Furthermore, the mature individuals are harvested continuously. We show that the population goes extinct if the harvesting rate is beyond a critical threshold. Conditions for the extended permanence of the population are also examined. From the biological point of view, it is easy to protect species by controlling the harvesting amount, impulsive period of the exogenous input of toxin and toxin impulsive input amount, etc. Our results provide reasonable tactics for biological resource management.