Abstract Glycogen was detected in the proventriculus of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultrastructural, histochemical, and biochemical methods. This organ contained ten times or more glycogen on a dry weight basis than was found in the thoracic muscle. Proventriculi of male tsetse contained less glycogen than those of females belonging to the same age group and in teneral flies the amount of glycogen was about 50 per cent lower than in mature, fed flies of the same sex. Although the thoracic muscle of tsetse flies was considerably lower in glycogen than that of blowflies the amounts in the proventriculus of mature females of the two insect species were almost equal. It is suggested that this carbohydrate store may supply the energy required for secretory processes.