Abstract We have studied healing of Xenopus neurulae in order to investigate the role of endogenous sodium-carried electric currents in wound closure. Transected embryos healed completely within 7 hr in an artificial pond water medium. Wound closure was biphasic, with a rapid purse string-like contraction that was independent of sodium concentration followed by a slower sodium-dependent phase. The initial contraction was reversibly inhibited by cytochalasin B. Healing was prevented when neurulae were wounded and left to heal in sodium-free medium. Healing was also prevented in the presence of amiloride, benzamil, or ouabain, drugs that inhibit sodium flux through the epithelium. The transepithelial potential measured in intact neurulae fell rapidly and reversibly by 70% in response to 10 μ M amiloride. Currents measured leaving the wound also decreased by 70% following amiloride addition. Our results indicate that at least one phase of wound healing in Xenopus neurulae is dependent upon an endogenous sodium-carried electric current. We hypothesize that the current may act by guiding epithelial cells to the wound site.