Abstract We explored the relationship between frequency and perceived burden of different self-management activities and HbA 1c%, symptoms of diabetes, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in 292 employees between 30 and 60 years of age with insulin-treated diabetes. Participants completed questionnaires that assess self-management and health-related variables. t-Tests were performed for type 1 (DM1) and type 2 diabetes (DM2) separately to compare the mean health scores of individuals who frequently or infrequently perform self-management activities and who do or do not perceive this as a burden. Participants frequently perform their self-management activities, particularly injection of insulin (96.1%), following dietary guidelines (70.8%) and eating regularly (65.6%). Dietary self-management is most often seen as a burden (70.4%), while injecting insulin is seen as least burdensome (12.8%). The perceived burden of self-management is more strongly related to health than the frequency of self-management. Frequency of self-management especially relates to HbA 1c% in DM1. People with DM2 who frequently follow the dietary guidelines have more positive health outcomes. Participants who perceive dietary self-management and injecting insulin as a burden have more negative health outcomes. Because different relationships were found between frequency and perceived burden of self-management and health indicators, both aspects should be assessed and considered separately when evaluating self-management and examining patient's health.