Abstract Aniline and its halogenated derivatives are widely used as chemical intermediates. The purpose of this study was to determine the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic potential of the 2-haloanilines. Male Fischer 344 rats ( n ≥ 4) were injected (i.p.) with 1.0 or 1.25 mmol/kg of: aniline (A), 2-fluoroaniline (2-FA), 2-chloroaniline (2-ClA), 2-bromoaniline (2-BrA), 2-iodoaniline (2-IA) or vehicle (0.9% saline, 2.5 ml/kg). All compounds were injected as hydrochloride salts. Renal and hepatic function was monitored 24 h after treatment. All of the 2-haloanilines induced oliguria, diminished kidney weight, tubular casts and decreased renal cortical slice accumulation of organic anions. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were increased ( P < 0.05) by treatment with 1.0 or 1.25 mmol/kg of 2-FA, 2-ClA or 2-BrA. Hepatic alterations were also observed and characterized by elevated plasma ALT/GPT activity and altered morphology in the centrilobular region. The nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic potentials were similar among the 2-haloanilines but aniline was less toxic than its 2-halo derivatives. These results demonstrated that halogen substitution at the 2-position of aniline increased hepatic and renal toxicity. However, the severity of toxicity was not influenced by the nature of the halogen substituent.