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Mobility of heavy metals and rare earth elements in incineration bottom ash through particle size reduction

Authors
Journal
Chemical Engineering Science
0009-2509
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
118
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2014.07.013
Keywords
  • Heavy Metals
  • Rare Earth Elements
  • Incineration Bottom Ash
  • Particle Size Reduction
  • Ball Milling
  • Fluidization
Disciplines
  • Chemistry
  • Ecology
  • Geography

Abstract

Abstract Incineration is an important municipal solid waste management process in Singapore. The incineration bottom ash (IBA) generated may contain heavy metals (HMs) and rare earth elements (REEs) that can cause environmental concerns upon reutilization. In this study, the particle size distribution, density, circularity, and chemical composition of the overall IBA as well as individual size ranges were determined. The particle size reduction characteristics and the mobility of HMs and REEs among different size ranges through ball milling and fluidization processes were examined. Certain HMs were found to present in high concentrations at particular particle size ranges. Mechanisms concerning the mobility of HMs and REEs were revealed.

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