Abstract The contamination of soils by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a widespread environmental problem and the remediation of PAHs from these areas has been a major concern. The effectiveness of many in situ bioremediation systems may be constrained by low contaminant bioavailability due to limited aqueous solubility or a large magnitude of sorption. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) on bioaugmentation by Paracoccus sp. strain HPD-2 of an aged PAH-contaminated soil. When 10% (W/W) MCD amendment was combined with bioaugmentation by the PAH-degrading bacterium Paracoccus sp. strain HPD-2, the percentage degradation of total PAHs was significantly enhanced up to 34.8%. Higher counts of culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and higher soil dehydrogenase and soil polyphenol oxidase activities were observed in 10% (W/W) MCD-assisted bioaugmentation soil. This MCD-assisted bioaugmentation strategy showed significant increases (p < 0.05) in the average well color development (AWCD) obtained by the BIOLOG Eco plate assay, Shannon-Weaver index (H) and Simpson index (γ) compared with the controls, implying that this strategy at least partially restored the microbiological functioning of the PAH-contaminated soil. The results suggest that MCD-aided bioaugmentation by Paracoccus sp. strain HPD-2 may be a promising practical bioremediation strategy for aged PAH-contaminated soils.