Abstract Women’s labor market position has changed dramatically during the past century, while changes in the home have followed at a slower pace. Marriage and motherhood and responsibilities for most household labor still affect women’s choices about whether and under what conditions to work for pay. The U.S. government does not have a coherent set of policies about work/family life, lagging far behind Canada and western Europe. Employer policies can be helpful but are more available to workers at higher income levels and are more likely to be used by women than men. Thus, women continue to make “choices” under seriously constrained conditions.