Abstract Field studies were conducted to establish correlation between mouse population infestation levels and environmental, sanitary and maintenance standards of apartment, commercial buildings and food establishments in the New York City. In general, higher relative mouse infestation levels were encountered in the apartment buildings in comparison to commerical and food establishments. The well-maintained structures with excellent status of environmental and maintenance conditions had significantly ( p<0·01) lower rate of mouse infestation (trap index 0·85–1·89) when compared to buildings with poor to fair status (trap index 8·48–26·75). This correlation was more evident in the case of apartment buildings, where relative mouse density was about 10 times lower in excellent status buildings when compared to poor status buildings possessing all adverse conditions conducive for mice survival and multiplication. The field efficacy of various rodenticides and their formulations revealed Bromadialone (0·005%) meal to be effective in controlling mouse populations (94·5%) followed by pellet formulation 0·005% of Brodifacoum (91·25% control success). In dry, non-humid conditions, the use of zinc phosphide (10%) tracking powder controlled mouse populations at 100% levels. All observations are discussed in relation to the ecology, biology and ethology of house mice.