The aim of this paper is to identify changes in social and economic structure of agricultural population in Istria County as a result of recent economic and political processes. In social changes group, Istrian population, and number of households had grown between two Censuses, as the agricultural population had fallen. According to educational structure, the majority of farmers have only practical experience. Data on economic structure indicate that the main sources of livelihood for majority of population are incomes from permanent job. Processing agricultural products prevails in income structure of farmers. The majority of agricultural households own and use between 5 and 10 hectares of available land, cultivating arable land and gardens, where they grow cereals. Surveys analysis, as a part of the PRIMA project, points out the possible reasons for past changes and potential changes in the future. „This publication has been funded under the PRIMA (Prototypical policy impacts on multifunctional activities in rural municipalities) collaborative project, EU 7th Framework Programme (ENV 2007-1), contract no. 212345. https://prima. cemagref.fr/ The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.“ As the most important changes in their municipalities, the participants pointed out creation of enterprise zones and improving the infrastructure, as well as the employment structure changes. Strengthening the local identity and human resources development are the most important outcomes of economic programs. The promotion of Istria, subsidies for the use of new production standards, and evaluation and information improvement are the most successful measures for implementation of programs that are important for their counties. The answers show the growing interest of farmers for additional education.