Abstract Objective. Concomitant chemoradiation (and brachytherapy) has become the standard treatment for locally advanced cervical cancers (FIGO stage IB2 to IVA). Adjuvant surgery is optional. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of residual positive pelvic lymph nodes after chemoradiation. Methods. From February 1988 to August 2004, 113 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer have been treated by chemoradiation followed by an adjuvant surgery with a pelvic lymphadenectomy performed (study group). A para-aortic lymphadenectomy had also been performed in 85 of them. Results. The mean age of the patients was 48.4 years (27–74). FIGO stage was: IB2 in 17.7% (20/113), II in 44.2% (50/113), III in 21.2% (24/113) and IVA in 16.8% of the patients (19/113). The mean number of removed nodes was 11.5 (median 11) in pelvic, and 7.5 (median 7) in para-aortic basins. A pelvic lymph node involvement was present in 15.9% (18/113) of the patients after chemoradiation. In 11 patients, only one node was positive. 11.7% (10/85) of the patients had a para-aortic lymph node involvement. A residual pelvic lymph node disease has been observed in 6.3% (4/63) of the cases with no residual cervical disease (or microscopic) versus 26.5% (13/49) of the cases with macroscopic residual cervical tumor ( P = 0.003). Conclusions. Our experience shows that a pelvic lymph node involvement persists in about 16% of the patients after chemoradiation. We can make the assumption that performing a pelvic lymphadenectomy along with the removal of the primary tumor after chemoradiation could reduce the rate of latero-pelvic recurrences, whatever the para-aortic lymph node status.