Context: Dyslipidemia coexists with hyperglycemia. However, little is known about the ethnic differences in lipid profiles at comparable glucose tolerance status. Objective: The aim was to study ethnic differences in lipid profiles stratified by glucose levels. Design and Setting: Data from 31 study cohorts of 12 countries, consisting of 24,760 men and 27,595 women aged 25–74 yr, were compared. The odds ratio for having dyslipidemia was estimated for each ethnic group stratified by glucose categories. Results: Compared with central and northern Europeans, multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for having lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were 4.74 (4.19 –5.37), 5.05 (3.88–6.56), 3.07 (2.15– 4.40), and 2.37 (1.67–3.35) in Asian Indian men, but 0.12 (0.09–0.16), 0.07 (0.04–0.13), 0.11 (0.07– 0.20), and 0.16 (0.08–0.32) in Chinese men who had normoglycemia, prediabetes, and undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes, respectively. Similar results were obtained for women. The prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol remained higher in Asian Indians (62.8% of the nondiabetic and 67.4% of the diabetic) than in central and northern Europeans (20.3 and 37.3%), Japanese (25.7 and 34.1%), or Qingdao Chinese (15.7 and 17.0%), even in individuals with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol of less than 3 mmol/liter. Conclusion: There are distinct patterns of lipid profiles associated with ethnicity regardless of the glucose levels, suggesting that ethnic-specific strategies and guidelines on risk assessment and prevention of cardiovascular disease are required.