Summary In the present study, the distribution of various sugar residues in the testicular cells of sexually mature camels during rutting and non-rutting seasons was examined employing 10 fluorescein isothiocyanate- (FITC) conjugated lectins. Lectin labeling was restricted to the germ cell lines and interstitial Leydig cells, while the Sertoli cells remained completely unlabeled. Our results revealed the presence of mannose (labeled by lectins PSA, LCA), galactose (labeled by PNA), GalNAc (labeled by HPA), and GlcNAc (labeled by WGA) residues in the camel spermatogonia. However, spermatocytes were only labeled with mannose (PSA, LCA) and GlcNAc (WGA) binding lectins. Binding sites for PSA, LCA and WGA in spermatogonia and spermatocytes were only evident during the rutting season. Although spermatids were exclusively labeled with PNA in the non-rutting seasons, other lectins (PSA, GSA-I, WGA) additionally bound to camel spermatids during the rutting period. Leydig cells and basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules of camel testis were consistently labeled with the mannose- (PSA, LCA) and GlcNAc- (WGA) binding lectins in both seasons, while DBA-labeling was seen in the Leydig cells during rutting period only. In conclusion, the findings of the present study clearly indicate that the camel testis contains a wide range of glycoconjugates (bearing mannosyl, galactosyl and glucosly residues), and they lack fucosyl residues, both in the active sexual period and in the non-breeding season. The topographical distribution of the sugar moieties in the camel testis may indicate that specific carbohydrate structures are required for spermatogenesis during periods of sexual activity.