1. Glucose uptake or glucose formation has been studied in kidney cortex slices to investigate metabolic control of phosphofructokinase and fructose-diphosphatase activities. 2. Glucose uptake is increased and glucose formation is decreased by anoxia, cyanide or an uncoupling agent. Under these conditions the intracellular concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and ATP decreased whereas that of fructose diphosphate either increased or remained constant, and the concentrations of AMP and ADP increased. 3. Glucose uptake was decreased, and glucose formation from glycerol or dihydroxyacetone was increased, by the presence of ketone bodies or fatty acids, or after starvation of the donor animal. Under these conditions, the concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and citrate were increased, whereas those of fructose diphosphate and the adenine nucleotides were unchanged (see also Newsholme & Underwood, 1966). 4. It is concluded that anoxia and cell poisons increase glucose uptake and decrease gluconeogenesis by stimulating phosphofructokinase and inhibiting fructose diphosphatase, whereas ketone bodies, fatty acids or starvation increase gluconeogenesis and decrease glucose uptake through the citrate inhibition of phosphofructokinase.