Abstract For optimal bone regeneration, scaffolds need to fit anatomically into the requisite bone defects and, ideally, augment cell growth and differentiation. In this study we evaluated novel computationally designed surface selective laser sintering (SSLS) scaffolds for their biocompatibility as templates, in vitro and in vivo, for human fetal femur-derived cell viability, growth and osteogenesis. Fetal femur-derived cells were successfully cultured on SSLS-poly( d, l)-lactic acid (SSLS-PLA) scaffolds expressing alkaline phosphatase activity after 7 days. Cell proliferation, ingrowth, Alcian blue/Sirius red and type I collagen positive staining of matrix deposition were observed for fetal femur-derived cells cultured on SSLS-PLA scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. SSLS-PLA scaffolds and SSLS-PLA scaffolds seeded with fetal femur-derived cells implanted into a murine critical-sized femur segmental defect model aided the regeneration of the bone defect. SSLS techniques allow fabrication of biocompatible/biodegradable scaffolds, computationally designed to fit any defect, providing a template for cell osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo.