Abstract Increased flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) has been shown to affect the activity and translocation of certain protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. It has been suggested that this effect is due to increases in the β- O-linked N-acetylglucosamine ( O-GlcNAc) modification. Herein, we demonstrate the effect of increasing the O-GlcNAc modification on the translocation of select PKC isozymes in a human astroglial cell line. Treating cells with either 8 mM d-glucosamine (GlcN), 5 mM streptozotocin (STZ), or 80 μM O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy- d-glucopyranosylidene)amino- N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) produced a significant increase in the O-GlcNAc modification on both cytosolic and membrane proteins; however, both the level and rate of O-GlcNAc increase varied with the compound. GlcN treatment resulted in a rapid, transient translocation of PKC-βII that was maximal after 3 h (73±8%) and also produced a 48±15% decrease in membrane-associated PKC-ε after 9 h of treatment. Similar to GlcN treatment, STZ and PUGNAc treatment also resulted in decreased levels of PKC-ε in the membrane fraction. Significant decreases were seen as early as 5 h and, by 9 h of treatment, had decreased by 87±6% with STZ and 73±7% with PUGNAc. Unlike GlcN, both STZ and PUGNAc produced a decrease in PKC-α membrane levels by 9 h posttreatment (78±10% with STZ and 66±8% with PUGNAc) while neither compound produced any changes in PKC-βII translocation. In addition, none of the three compounds affected membrane levels of PKC-ι. Altogether, these results demonstrate a novel link between increased levels of the O-GlcNAc modification and the regulation of specific PKC isoforms.