Summary The increasing incidence of lung cancer is noted. The methods of its diagnosis are outlined with the difficulties involved. The criteria by which a diagnosis was made in a series of 96 cases are listed. Treatment is discussed and it is noted that only one third of all cases are suitable for radical surgery in spite of a more general awareness of the disease and improved diagnostic facilities. The immediate prognosis is poor. Only 10 of 48 cases, diagnosed as a result of mass radiography drive, were alive at two years. Similarly only five of a series of 48 cases referred to the clinic by general practitioners were alive at two years. In the light of those results even early diagnosis does not offer much hope for victims of the disease. Until we have a specific cure for cancer the approach to the problem should be by an increased preventive drive. Local Authorities should be given much more government backing to tackle known hazards such as cigarette smoking, atmosphere pollution and certain trades where there is a risk. Such action would incidentally help to solve the problem of chronic bronchitis. Research into cancer's causation and treatment should be increased.