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Kondisi Terumbu Karang di Perairan Sabang Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam setelah Tsunami

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Marine Science Department Diponegoro University
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Abstract

Terumbu karang merupakan ekosistem yang kompleks dengan karagaman biologi tinggi yang mendukung hasil perikanan dan melindungi pantai dari aksi gelombang. Pasca bencana tsunami pada 26 Desember 2004 silam, belum banyak informasi kuantitatif mengenai kondisi terumbu karang di sekitar perairan Pulau Weh Sabang Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Penelitian mengenai kondisi terumbu karang ini dilakukan di enam stasiun pengamatan yang tersebar di bagian barat, tengah dan timur Pulau Weh dengan menggunakan Metode Transek Garis (LIT, Line Intercept Transect) berdasarkan bentuk pertumbuhan (life form) karang dankomponen benthik lainnya. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan kondisi terumbu karang di perairan Pulau Weh masih baik, seperti di stasiun Benteng, Lhong Angen dan Gapang, namun di beberapa tempat telah memperlihatkan kerusakan mengkhawatirkan yang diperkirakan bukan akibat bencana tsunami, namun karena adanya usaha pemanfaatan sumberdaya alam tidak ramah lingkungan. Tidak ditemukan kerusakan yang serius akibat bencana tsunami terhadap ekosistem terumbu karang diperairan Pulau Weh diperkirakan berhubungan dengan tipe pantai yang pada umumnya berbatu, terjal dan sangat kokoh serta didukung oleh kondisi terumbu karang yang baik sehingga mampu menahan dan meredam aksi gelombang melalui sistem spur and groove.Kata kunci : terumbu karang, Sabang, LIT, tsunamiCoral reefs are complex ecosystems with high biological diversity that support productive fisheries and protect the beach from wave action. After tsunami disaster on last 26 December 2004, there is noquantitative information yet on condition of coral reef ecosystem around Sabang waters, Weh Island,Aceh, Indonesia. This research has been done in sixt station of Weh Island on early April 2005. LineIntercept Transects (LIT) are used to assest the sessile benthic community of coral reef. The community is characterized using lifeform categories which provide a morphological description of the reef community. The result shows that coral reef condition in Sabang Waters, Weh Island, generally is good, especially in Benteng, Lhong Angen and Gapang stations. However, in some sites coral reef condition are bad. There is no serious impact because of tsunami disaster on coral reef condition in Sabang Waters. The bad coral reef condition in some sites may be because of illegal fishing. Rocky shore and good coral reef condition are main factors which protect the beach ecosystem from wave action. Spur and groove system of the coral reef structure acts primarily as a dissipator of the continual wave energy operating on the coastal shoreline, and by dissipating wave energy before it reaches the shore, the beach area is protected from extensive wave action of tsunami.Key words: coral reef, Sabang, LIT, tsunami

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