An immunofluorescent cell (IFC) assay technique was developed for the quantification of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus of salmonid fishes. Cover slip cultures of rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2) cells were infected with diluted virus preparations. After incubation to permit antigen development, the cells were stained with antiviral fluorescent antibody, and the number of fluorescing (infected) cells was counted. Optimal conditions for the IFC assay procedure are: (i) the use of RTG-2 cells cultured for at least 3 days at 20 C; (ii) 1-h absorption of IPN virus to RTG-2 cells at 20 C or alternatively, 4 h at 4 C; (iii) staining the infected cell cultures at 10 to 12 h postinfection. A linear relationship between the relative concentration of virus in the inoculum and the number of fluorescent cells in the first cycle of infection was observed. The IFC assay method is more sensitive than the plaque method for the assay of IPN virus.