Introduction Hemodynamic resuscitation should be aimed at achieving not only adequate cardiac output but also sufficient mean arterial pressure (MAP) to guarantee adequate tissue perfusion pressure. Since the arterial pressure response to volume expansion (VE) depends on arterial tone, knowing whether a patient is preload-dependent provides only a partial solution to the problem. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of a functional evaluation of arterial tone by dynamic arterial elastance (Eadyn), defined as the pulse pressure variation (PPV) to stroke volume variation (SVV) ratio, to predict the hemodynamic response in MAP to fluid administration in hypotensive, preload-dependent patients with acute circulatory failure. Methods We performed a prospective clinical study in an adult medical/surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital, including 25 patients with controlled mechanical ventilation who were monitored with the Vigileo® monitor, for whom the decision to give fluids was made because of the presence of acute circulatory failure, including arterial hypotension (MAP ≤65 mmHg or systolic arterial pressure <90 mmHg) and preserved preload responsiveness condition, defined as a SVV value ≥10%. Results Before fluid infusion, Eadyn was significantly different between MAP responders (MAP increase ≥15% after VE) and MAP nonresponders. VE-induced increases in MAP were strongly correlated with baseline Eadyn (r2 = 0.83; P < 0.0001). The only predictor of MAP increase was Eadyn (area under the curve, 0.986 ± 0.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-1). A baseline Eadyn value >0.89 predicted a MAP increase after fluid administration with a sensitivity of 93.75% (95% CI, 69.8%-99.8%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 66.4%-100%). Conclusions Functional assessment of arterial tone by Eadyn, measured as the PVV to SVV ratio, predicted arterial pressure response after volume loading in hypotensive, preload-dependent patients under controlled mechanical ventilation.