Abstract Objective The objective of this research was to evaluate the subjective orthodontic treatment with the aesthetic component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need among a sample of Yemeni population. Materials and Methods The investigation was carried out in Sana’a city, a total of 368 participants were randomly selected from a list of 1376 university students excluding dentistry students, among them 165 was responded (92 female and 73 male) and was based on a questionnaire. The questionnaire checked items concerning to the subjective assessment of dental appearance, demand for orthodontic treatment, and any functional disorders (speech, mastication, muscular pain). For statistical analysis chi-square test were used. A probability at the 5 per cent level or less (P < 0.05) was considered statistically significant. Results Overall, 96.4% of the sample classified themselves in the ‘no treatment need’ category, 3% classified themselves in the ‘great treatment need’ category. Satisfaction with dental aesthetics was expressed by 65.5% of respondents. Out of the total sample, 41.8% said that they should have orthodontic treatment, the sex distribution was significantly different (Chi-Square = 4.279, df = 3, P = 0.001). Conclusion According the AC of IOTN, almost 3.6% of the evaluated Yemeni subjects had a ‘borderline need’ to a ‘great need’ for orthodontic treatment. If the answers of those said that they should have orthodontic treatment is considered, the need would increase to two-fifth (41.8%) of the sample.