Abstract Background. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of walking on lipids and lipoproteins in adults. Methods. Randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of walking on total cholesterol (TC), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), the ratio of TC/HDL, and triglycerides (TG) in adults ages 18 years and older were retrieved via computerized literature searches, cross-referencing, hand-searching, and expert review of our reference list. Results. Twenty-five studies that included 1,176 subjects (692 walkers, 484 controls) and up to 33 outcomes were available for pooling. Using random-effects modeling, statistically significant, walking-induced decreases of 5% and 6% were observed for LDL-C and TC/HDL-C (LDL-C, mean ± SE, −5.5 ± 2.2 mg/dL, 95% CI, −9.9 to −1.2 mg/dL; TC/HDL-C, mean ± SE, −0.3 ± 0.1, 95% CI, −0.6 to −0.1). No statistically significant changes were observed for TC, HDL, or TG ( P > 0.05), although changes were in the direction of benefit. No statistically significant changes occurred in body composition ( P > 0.05). Conclusions. Walking reduces LDL-C and TC/HDL-C in adults independent of changes in body composition.