Sub-Saharan Africa needs to produce more food, feed, and fiber to support its growing population and intensification of smallholder agriculture is a crucial component of any strategy towards this goal. Sustainable Intensification (SI) acknowledges that enhanced productivity needs to go hand in hand with the maintenance of other ecosystem services and enhanced resilience to shocks. A very diverse group of smallholders dominate SSA agriculture, with large heterogeneity in socio-technical regimes, famer typologies, production objectives, and biophysical conditions. This potentially generates a multitude of pathways from the current low productivity based on nutrient mining to SI. The institutional context needs to be right for delivering the necessary goods and services underlying SI, ensuring inclusiveness across household types, facilitating local innovation, and most importantly ensuring that intensification is profitable.