Abstract Further evidence is presented incriminating the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis as the vector of Leishmania chagasi, the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis, in the Amazon Region of Brazil. During an outbreak of the disease in Santarém, Pará State, this insect was shown to be the only species of sandfly consistently present in and around the patients' homes, where it often occurred in very large numbers. Of 491 specimens dissected, 35 (7·14%) proved to be infected, and isolates of L. chagasi were made from 16 of 27 of these sandflies following the inoculation of the promastigptes into hamsters. Finally, the parasite was transmitted to four other hamsters which had been subjected to the bites of large numbers of wild-caught Lu. longipalpis. Isolates of Leishmania from Lu. longipalpis captures in Santarém, and in another focus of visceral leishmaniasis on the Island of Marajó, Para, have been shown to be biologically and biochemically indistinguishable from the parasite infecting man, dogs and foxes in Pará, and from stocks obtained from man elsewhere in Brazil (Bahia and Ceará States).