In the South of'Chad, the Esso Consortium had to pay compensation both to the colleclivity and to individuals, after having occupied land and trees destroyed by the petroleum pumping site. Between 1995 and 2003, lengthy debates took place to estimale that compensation. In addition to the technical difficulties, there was a power struggle between, on the one side, the Consortium associated with the Chad Stale and, on lhe other, the local groups flanked by lhe encouraging NCO from the North. The Ngambay populations are confronted to a double hypocrisy, that ofa Durable Development discourse displayed by the Esso -thanks to the World Bank obliged -, and that of the NCO who finds hère a timely environmental fight. Too far renioved from the stakes ofthis petrol opération, the concerned village communilies have been working to obtain the compensation which was within their reach, that of " wild trees".