Abstract Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a noninvasive alternative to established cell imaging methods because it does not require chemical fixation, the use of fluorescent markers, or genetic engineering. In particular, single live-cell, high-resolution imaging by confocal Raman microscopy is desirable because it allows further experiments concerning the individually investigated cells. However, to derive meaningful images from the spectroscopic data, one must identify cell components within the dataset. Using immunofluorescence images as a reference, we derive Raman spectral signatures by means of information measures to identify cell components such as the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria. The extracted signatures allow us to generate representations equivalent to conventional (immuno)fluorescence images with more than three cell components at a time, exploiting the Raman spectral information alone.