Background. Periodontal disease leading to clinical findings such as increased periodontal probing depth involves a complex interaction between invading pathogenic microorganisms and the patient's immune system. Lymphotoxin alpha (LT-α) is a potent multifunctional immune modulator that contributes toward susceptibility to immune regulation disorders, including periodontal disease. Objective. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic periodontitis (CP) is associated with polymorphisms of the LT-α gene. Materials and Methods. A total of 126 subjects, 44 healthy subjects, and 82 subjects with CP, were evaluated for periodontal disease by measuring clinical attachment loss and separation. Samples of epithelial cells were obtained for DNA analysis by scraping of the buccal mucosa. The LT-α gene was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by endonuclease digestion with NcoI to analyze restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Results. The LT-α gene (+252A/G) polymorphism was associated with CP. LT-α allele frequencies were significantly different ( ) between patients with CP and healthy individuals, with an odds ratio of 2.67 for patients with CP with the G allele. Conclusions. These findings suggest the LT-α gene genotype is a risk indicator for susceptibility to chronic periodontal disease in the Brazilian population studied.