Chromolaena, or Siam weed, is a serious problem in several tropical and sub-tropical areas around the world. In our own region, it is a serious weed in New Guinea, East Timor and Indonesia and is also under an eradication regime in North Queensland. The chapter summarises current knowledge about the taxonomy, biology, distribution, ecology, impacts and control of the weed. Biological control has been a major multinational initiative against this weed in recent years and these efforts are described in some detail. Interestingly agents have not been universally effective because of weed biotype differences and climate. Considerable success has been achieved in New Guinea, principally with the tephritid fly Cecidocares connex and by the efforts of Michael Day, Rachel McFadyen and Graham Donnelly from Alan Fletcher Research Station.