This was a cross-sectional study which analyzed the prevalence and the clinical and immunological spectrum of canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in a cohort of 320 mongrel dogs living in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the Amazonian Brazil by using, mainly, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT-IgG) and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the parasite research by the popliteal lymph node aspiration. The IFAT and DTH reactivity recognized three different immune response profiles: (1) IFAT((+))/DTH(-) (107 dogs), (2) IFAT((-))/DTH(+) (18 dogs), and (3) IFAT((+))/DTH(+) (13 dogs), providing an overall prevalence of infection of 43 % (138/320). Thus, the specific prevalence of IFAT ((+)) /DTH ((-)) 33.4 % (107/320) was higher than those of IFAT ((-)) /DTH ((+)) 5.6 % (18/320) and IFAT ((+)) /DTH ((+)) 4.0 % (13/320). Moreover, the frequency of these profiles among 138 infected dogs showed that the IFAT ((+)) /DTH ((-)) rate of 77.5 % (107/138) was also higher than those of 13.0 % (18/138) of IFAT ((-)) /DTH ((+)) and 9.5 % (13/138) of IFAT ((+)) /DTH ((+)) rates. The frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76 %-105) was higher than those of symptomatic (16.6 %-23) and oligosymptomatic ones (7.4 %-10). A total of 16 (11.6 %) L. (L.) i. chagasi isolates were obtained from infected dogs, all from the IFAT ((+)) /DTH ((-)) profile: 41 % (9/22) from symptomatic, 33.3 % (3/9) from oligosymptomatic, and 5.2 % (4/76) from asymptomatic dogs. These findings strongly suggested that despite the higher frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76 %-105), the majority (72.4 %-76) was characterized by the IFAT ((+)) /DTH ((-)) profile with a doubtful immunogenetic resistance against infection.