Abstract Pediatric neurologic intensive care differs from standard pediatric intensive care in two important respects. First, the diagnosis, monitoring, and management of problems related to disorders of cerebral perfusion and intracranial pressure (ICP) are central to nearly all of pediatric neurologic and neurosurgical intensive care. Second, various clinical problems normally encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU) have additional implications when associated with neurologic disease. Regardless of the cause, treatment should be undertaken as expeditiously as possible and should be based on the principles of resuscitation, reducing the volume of the intracranial contents, and reassessment. This chapter aims to outline some basic principles underlying the diagnosis and management of elevated ICP in children.