Abstract During the flight of a Petrel rocket, instrumented by the SRC Radio and Space Research Station with Geiger counters and launched westwards from South Uist, Outer Hebrides, Scotland ( L=3.38), a transient increase was observed in the intensity of energetic electrons having pitch angles between 60 and 120°. The increase, by a factor of 20 above the quasi-steady intensity observed throughout the remainder of the flight, occurred in 0.8 sec and was simultaneous for both >45 keV and >110 keV electrons. Recorded ∼0.5 sec later, on the ground, was a two-hop whistler. During the enhanced electron intensity event, the entire duration of which was ∼6 sec, the four-, six- and eight-hop whistlers were also received. From an analysis of the whistlers' spectrogram, it is concluded that the whistlers were ducted through the magnetosphere along the L=3.3 ±0.1 field line; the electron density in the equatorial plane is found to be 330 ±10 cm −3, a value characteristic of conditions within the plasmapause. It is suggested that these temporally and/or spatially associated phenomena, rather than arising by a chance coincidence, were the result of a gyroresonant interaction between energetic electrons and whistler mode waves moving in opposite directions. For gyroresonance on this field line at the equator, the parallel component of energy of the electrons is 25 keV at 3 kHz in the whistler band, or 100 keV at 1 kHz below it. It is suggested that a magnetospheric event occurred, causing both sudden enhanced electron precipitation and favourable conditions for the propagation and/or amplification of whistlers. A possible explanation is that energetic electrons, having a sufficiently anisotropic distribution function and associated with those injected during an earlier auroral substorm, become unstable via the transverse resonance instability when they drift into the plasmasphere, a region of high density thermal plasma.