Surgical treatment for symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) was performed on 420 infants and children over a 19-year period. Esophageal motility disorders were present in more than 35% of patients and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was present in approximately 50% of patients studied. Gastroesophageal fundoplication (GEF) alone was performed for 357 patients, whereas 51 patients underwent GEF and pyloroplasty; 12 patients underwent pyloroplasty alone. When there is more than 60% gastric retention of technetium-99m sulphur colloid in semisolid feedings at 90 minutes, pyloroplasty appears to be useful. Twenty-two percent of the last 275 refluxing children underwent pyloroplasty combined with GEF. Most infants and young children undergoing evaluation for severe GER, particularly those with neurologic disorders, may benefit from having a gastric emptying study. Children with severe reflux and esophageal dysmotility should have a loose GEF performed. The absence of persistent dumping, and the very low incidence of complications suggests that pyloroplasty should be used more frequently when significant DGE is present.