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Formal representations for EMS - job control language



Economic Research Southern Africa (ERSA) is a research programme funded by the National Treasury of South Africa. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the funder, ERSA or the author’s affiliated institution(s). ERSA shall not be liable to any person for inaccurate information or opinions contained herein. Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? Risk Aversion and Gender Discrimination in Assessment Jason Hartford and Nic Spearman ERSA working paper 418 February 2014 WHO’S AFRAID OF THE BIG BAD WOLF? RISK AVERSION AND GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN ASSESSMENT∗ Jason Hartford And Nic Spearman† Abstract This study exploits a natural experiment to evaluate the gender bias effect associated with negative marking due to gender-differentiated risk aversion. This approach avoids framing effects that characterize experimental evaluation of negative marking assessments. Evidence of a gender bias against female students is found. Quantile regressions indicate that female students in higher quantiles are substantially more adversely affected by negative marking. This distribution effect has been overlooked by prior studies, but has important policy impli- cations for higher learning institutions where access to bursary and scholarship funding, as well as access to further study opportunities, is reserved for top performing candidates. JEL Codes: J16, D81, I24, A20, C21 (Word count: Abstract - 219; Text - 3 638) ∗We are grateful to our colleagues in the School of Economic and Business Sciences at the University of the Wit- watersrand, as well as the anonymous referees from ERSA, for invaluable feedback received on earlier drafts of this study. Any remaining errors are our own. †Corresponding author. Address: Office NCB202, New Commerce Building, West Campus, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesbu

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