The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in 19 strains of Vibrio fluvialis isolated from 1998 to 2002 in Kolkata, India, were investigated. Class 1 integrons were detected in eight strains, and four strains were found to carry SXT integrases. In the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone or reserpine, all nalidixic acid- and ciprofloxacin-resistant strains became sensitive, suggesting that drug efflux plays a major role in quinolone resistance in V. fluvialis. It was further seen that strains which had MICs of >25 μg/ml for nalidixic acid had a sense mutation (Ser to Ile) at position 83 of the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA. All except one of the integron- and SXT integrase-bearing strains belonged to the same ribotype.