Two exploratory investigations found an increased risk of intussusception after oral polio vaccine (OPV). A large, national, population-based study was undertaken in Cuba to investigate a possible association. Three hundred and thirty-five cases of intussusception in children under 2 years of age occurring in 1995–2000 were identified and their OPV records retrieved. The relative incidence (RI) of intussusception in defined periods up to 42 days after OPV in children under 1 year was estimated using the self-controlled case series method, controlling for age and season. The RI was not significantly raised in any of the time intervals examined within the 0–42 day period after OPV. For the period 0–42 days as a whole the RI was 1.11, 95% CI 0.74–1.67. This study does not support the hypothesis that OPV causes intussusception.