The term myeloid hyperplasia has been used interchangeably with many other terms to describe an increased production of granulocytes, megakaryocytes, and erythrocytes in the spleen and other organs in the mouse. This process is occasionally misdiagnosed as granulocytic leukemia. This paper reviews some of the terms used interchangeably with myeloid hyperplasia and describes criteria that can be used to differentiate myeloid hyperplasia from granulocytic leukemia. Additionally, the results of a study in which myeloid hyperplasia was induced following the formation of skin tumors in SENCAR mice is discussed. In this study, positive correlations were found between skin lesions, the spleen weight, and histologic appearance of the spleen. The liver rarely showed microscopic changes of myeloid hyperplasia unless the spleen weighed at least 1.0% of the body weight. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9.