Abstract Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are members of the hemoprotein superfamily, and are involved in the mono-oxygenation reactions of a wide range of endogenous and exogenous compounds in mammals and plants. Characterization of CYP genes in fish has been carried out intensively over the last 20 years. In Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes), 54 genes encoding P450s have been identified. Across all species of fish, 137 genes encoding P450s have been identified. These genes are classified into 18 CYP families: namely, CYP1, CYP2, CYP3, CYP4, CYP5, CYP7, CYP8, CYP11, CYP17, CYP19, CYP20, CYP21, CYP24, CYP26, CYP27, CYP39, CYP46 and CYP51.We pinpointed eight CYP families: namely, CYP1, CYP2, CYP3, CYP4, CYP11, CYP17, CYP19 and CYP26 in this review because these CYP families are studied in detail. Studies of fish P450s have provided insights into the regulation of P450 genes by environmental stresses including water pollution. In this review, we present an overview of the CYP families in fish.