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Heart of Endosymbioses: Transcriptomics Reveals a Conserved Genetic Program among Arbuscular Mycorrhizal, Actinorhizal and Legume-Rhizobial Symbioses

Authors
Journal
PLoS ONE
1932-6203
Publisher
Public Library of Science
Publication Date
Volume
7
Issue
9
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044742
Keywords
  • Research Article
  • Biology
  • Computational Biology
  • Genomics
  • Comparative Genomics
  • Plant Science
  • Plant Cell Biology
  • Plant Evolution
  • Plant Genomics
  • Plant Growth And Development
  • Plant Microbiology
  • Plant Physiology
  • Plants
Disciplines
  • Medicine

Abstract

To improve their nutrition, most plants associate with soil microorganisms, particularly fungi, to form mycorrhizae. A few lineages, including actinorhizal plants and legumes are also able to interact with nitrogen-fixing bacteria hosted intracellularly inside root nodules. Fossil and molecular data suggest that the molecular mechanisms involved in these root nodule symbioses (RNS) have been partially recycled from more ancient and widespread arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. We used a comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes involved in establishing these 3 endosymbioses and their functioning. We analysed global changes in gene expression in AM in the actinorhizal tree C. glauca. A comparison with genes induced in AM in Medicago truncatula and Oryza sativa revealed a common set of genes induced in AM. A comparison with genes induced in nitrogen-fixing nodules of C. glauca and M. truncatula also made it possible to define a common set of genes induced in these three endosymbioses. The existence of this core set of genes is in accordance with the proposed recycling of ancient AM genes for new functions related to nodulation in legumes and actinorhizal plants.

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