Abstract A distinctive pattern called premature temporal theta (PTθ) was studied in 436 infants, ranging in age from 24 to 46 weeks. The pattern is seen in early prematurity, maximizes at 29–31 weeks and then diminishes and disappears near term. Usually the pattern is found independently on both temporal areas, but with a right-sided preference. Patients without PTθ or with a significantly low amount had either neurological or non-neurological (medical) conditions. With age there is a tendency for an increase in frequency and a decrease in amplitude. Five different peaks in the amount of this pattern are seen at approximately every month. Unilateral PTθ tends to be seen in older babies, more often on the right side and with an abnormal EEG. An abnormal EEG is usually associated with a delay in both the appearance and disappearance of this wave form. PTθ is also associated mainly with REM or active sleep. A polynomial rather than an exponential or power function best describes these data with changes of age. PTθ may arise from the inferior temporal gyrus and/or especially the transverse gyrus.