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Effect of memantine on plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and phenytoin in rats: A controlled experimental study

Authors
Journal
Current Therapeutic Research
0011-393X
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
70
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.curtheres.2009.10.005
Keywords
  • Memantine
  • Carbamazepine
  • Phenytoin
  • Alzheimer'S Disease
  • Epilepsy
  • Rat
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Medicine
  • Pharmacology

Abstract

Abstract Background: Elderly patients, especially those with Alzheimer's disease, may be prescribed memantine and an antiepileptic drug concurrently. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the interaction of memantine with phenobarbital (an enzyme inducer) and chloramphenicol (an enzyme inhibitor) on plasma concentrations of carbamazepine (CBZ), CBZ-10,11-epoxide (CBZE), and phenytoin in an experimental model. Methods: Eight groups of rats (200–230 g) were treated for 14 days each. In groups 1 and 2, phenobarbital 50 mg/kg was administered daily as an enzyme inducer 60 minutes before CBZ 50 mg/kg or phenytoin 30 mg/kg administration, respectively. In groups 3 and 4, chloramphenicol 300 mg/kg was administered daily as an enzyme inhibitor 60 minutes before CBZ or phenytoin administration, respectively. In groups 5 and 6, memantine 20 mg/kg was administered daily 60 minutes before CBZ or phenytoin, respectively. In group 7, CBZ alone was administered daily; in group 8, phenytoin alone was administered daily. Two hours after the last intragastric gavage, animals were anesthetized with ether and 2 mL of blood was drawn from the heart into a syringe containing EDTA. A validated method developed in this study was used for simultaneous determination of CBZ, CBZE, and phenytoin concentrations in rat plasma. Results: The study comprised 8 groups of 9 male adult Wistar rats each. Compared with groups 7 and 8, concurrent use of CBZ or phenytoin with phenobarbital (groups 1 and 2) was associated with significantly lower mean (SEM) plasma concentrations of CBZ (3.45 [0.16] vs 2.20 [0.21] μg/mL; P < 0.001) and phenytoin (3.68 [0.09] vs 1.63 [0.15] μg/mL; P < 0.001) and a significantly higher plasma CBZE concentration (9.85 [0.29] vs 11.18 [0.29] μg/mL; P < 0.05). Concurrent use of CBZ or phenytoin with chloramphenicol (groups 3 and 4) was associated with significantly higher plasma concentrations of CBZ (4.81 [0.17] μg/mL; P < 0.001) and phenytoin (6.24 [0.22] μg/mL; P < 0.001) and a significantly lower plasma CBZE concentration (3.88 [0.25] μg/mL; P < 0.001). Concurrent use of CBZ or phenytoin with memantine (groups 5 and 6) was not associated with a significant change in the plasma concentration of CBZ, CBZE, or phenytoin. Conclusion: Memantine was not associated with a significant change in the plasma concentration of CBZ, CBZE, or phenytoin in this experimental model.

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