Abstract The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), one of the three glycoprotein hormone receptors, is necessary for critical reproductive processes, including gonadal steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation and ovulation, and male sex differentiation. Moreover, it has been postulated to contribute to certain neoplasms, particularly ovarian cancer. A member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, LHR contains a relatively large extracellular domain responsible for high affinity hormone binding; transmembrane activation then leads to G protein coupling and subsequent second messenger production. This review deals with recent advances in our understanding of LHR structure and structure–function relationships, as well as hormone-mediated changes in gene expression in ovarian cancer cells expressing LHR. Suggestions are also made for critical gaps that need to be filled as the field advances, including determination of the three-dimensional structure of inactive and active receptor, elucidation of the mechanism by which hormone binding to the extracellular domain triggers the activation of Gs, clarification of the putative roles of LHR in non-gonadal tissues, and the role, if any, of activated receptor in the development or progression of ovarian cancer.