Abstract Arachidonic acid stimulated guanylate cyclase activity about two fold in homogenates of mammary glands obtained from midpregnant mice; effects of arachidonic acid were observed during incubation periods between 5 and 20 minuted. Stimulatory effects of arachidonic acid on guanylate cyclase activity were observed when 10 to 100 μg arachidonic acid was added to the reaction mixtures (150 μl). When 250 μg or more arachidonic acid was added to the reaction mixtures, the activity of guanylate cyclase was inhibited. Other fatty acids including linoleic acid, linolenic acid and oleic acid also stimulated guanylate cyclase activity but neither arachidic acid nor stearic acid had an effect. The arachidonic acid stimulation of guanylate cyclase activity was abolished by incubation with indomethacin and aspirin, thus suggesting the arachidonic acid effect may be carried out via the prostaglandins. A variety of prostaglandins, however, at several concentrations did not stimulate guanylate cyclase activity when added to the reaction mixtures. The failure of the prostaglandins to have an effect may be due to several reasons which are discussed.