Abstract There exists clinical evidence of fractures in adjacent vertebrae subsequent to vertebral augmentation procedures, such as vertebroplasty (VP) and kyphoplasty (KP). A potential contributory factor to such fractures may be the excessive mismatch of mechanical properties between contemporary bone cements ( i.e. polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and bisphenol-a-glycidyl dimethacrylate (BIS-GMA)) and bone. Aluminum-free glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) present an interesting alternative to conventional bone cements. GPCs adhere to the philosophy that implant materials should have mechanical characteristics similar to those of the bone, and also offer chemical adhesion and intrinsic bioactivity. However, their influence on the loading patterns of augmented vertebrae (as compared with conventional bone cements) is not available in the literature. The present work investigates how the moduli of PMMA, BIS-GMA and GPC implants affect the stress distribution within a single, augmented vertebra, in both healthy and osteoporotic states. Using a finite element model of the L4 vertebra derived from computed tomography data, with simulated augmentation, it was found that, as cement stiffness increased, stress was redistributed from the cortical and trabecular bone to the cement implant. The GPC implant exhibited the least effect on stress redistribution in both the healthy and osteoporotic models compared to its acrylic counterparts. The significance of this work is that, under simulated physiological loading conditions, aluminum-free GPCs exhibit stress distribution throughout the vertebral body similar to that of the healthy bone. In comparison to conventional augmentation materials, the use of aluminum-free GPCs in VP and KP may help to ameliorate the clinical complication of adjacent vertebral body compression fractures.