Background: Personality characteristics are important factors, which have significant effects on marital adjustment. Since personality traits play silent roles in all aspects of human life, as well as social affairs, it can influence marital adjustment and living satisfaction. The present study investigated the role of personality trait dimensions and gender in predicting marital adjustment.Methods: Studding population included Art bachelor, master and PhD students in Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj branch. 224 couples were selected from students using two phases clustering sampling method. Short NEO-form tests and Lack-Wallas marital adjustment tests were used for data collection.Results: Findings showed significant correlation coefficient between extraversion (P<0/05), agreeableness (P<0/01), consciousness (P<0/01), neuroticism (P<0/01), and gender (P<0/05) to predict the marital adjustment characteristics. Also, impact factors of gender coefficient variable (B=0/436) with regard to T statistics, indicates that sexuality variable by 0/99 certainty could predict marital adjustment variation. Women's marital adjustment was more frequent than men in this study.Conclusions: Research findings of the role of personality trait dimensions and gender in predicting marital adjustment indicates that extraversion personality trait, agreeableness, consciousness, neuroticism, and gender all could predict marital adjustment.