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Stepwise Optimisation of Enzyme Production in Solid State Fermentation of Waste Bread Pieces

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  • Aspergillus Awamori
  • Cereal Based Biorefineries
  • Glucoamylase
  • Protease
  • Solid State Fermentation
  • Waste Bread
  • Biology
  • Economics


When it is not consumed, bread presents a major source of food waste, both in terms of the amount and its economic value. However, bread also possesses the characteristics of an ideal substrate for solid state fermentation. Yet nearly all wasted bread ends up in landfill sites, where it is converted into methane by anaerobic digestion. Governments are finally taking action and, according to the EU Landfill Directive, for example, biodegradable municipal waste disposed into landfills must be decreased to 35% of 1995 levels, by 2020. Solid state fermentation of waste bread for the production of value added products is a novel idea, which could help with the achievement of this target. In this study, glucoamylase and protease production from waste bread pieces, via solid state fermentation, was investigated in detail. The optimum fermentation conditions for enzyme production were evaluated as, 20 mm particle size, 1.8 (w/w, db) initial moisture ratio, and duration of 144 h. Under these conditions, glucoamylase and protease activities reached up to 114.0 and 83.2 U/g bread (db), respectively. This study confirms that waste bread could be successfully utilised as a primary raw material in cereal based biorefineries. © 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

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